A breakthrough by researchers at Cornell University ended a decades-long quest, revealing the characteristic equations that define any packet-switched network. These researchers then implemented their breakthrough as HALO, the world's first distributed real-time control system for packet switched networks (read the original paper).
The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported the original research, and evaluated HALO on its network testbed, GENI. HALO supported 300% the throughput at the lowest possible delay between hosts in New York and Sunnyvale, when compared with the prior state-of-the-art. Unlike heuristic protocols, HALO was able to quickly adapt to dynamic traffic changes without prior knowledge.
HALO was further tested in the AT&T SDN Network Design Challenge, where competitive solutions were deployed on a prototypical carrier network in the face of rapidly rising dynamic traffic demand. HALO delivered a near-optimal solution in thirty seconds.
Mode was founded by these same Cornell computer scientists, who built the commercial version, Mode HALO. This allows Mode and Mode alone to deliver the theoretical limit of network routing.